Sunday, June 26, 2016

Sunday 26th June 2016...for a change I------------

Fill in the blanks...YES I admit it ......I watched three live soccer games today!!!!!!!  AND whilst on the subject get ready Wimbledon starts tomorrow!!!!

In between the games Anne took me on a lovely outing to a very historical place.....



Before I never understood the major significance of this sight and this charter!!!



This is a long article but I enjoyed and learned from it!!

Runnymede and Magna Carta

Lodges at Runnymede
Lodges at Runnymede
A short walk along the road and I pass between two Lodge Houses situated on either side of the carriageway. These lodges were designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens to mark the entrance to Runnymede Meadows. The famous meadows are the site of one of the most significant autograph signings in history. It was here that King John is alleged to have signed Magna Carta, “The Great Charter” in 1215.
Exactly where or how this was done is still the subject of much speculation. When asked where Magna Carta was signed any cheeky schoolboy will reply “At the bottom” which is possibly more accurate than anybody else can place it.
Most people take the story of the signing of Magna Carta a little bit too much on trust. It is when you start to think about it a little more deeply that all sorts of questions spring to mind.
Why Runnymede in the first place? Why in the middle of a field halfway between Windsor and Staines? There was nothing here then, and there is nothing here now except memorials to Magna Carta. However the name “Runnymede” is thought to come from early Anglo-Saxon roots, “runinge” meaning to take council, and “moed” being a meadow. So was this a historic meeting point well before the reign of King John? There is a school of thought that says that King Alfred used to have regular council meetings here known as the “Witan” when he was resident at Old Windsor, just a short distance upriver.
How did it all come about in the first place? The common misconception is that it went something like this…
A group of Barons had decided that they have had their fill of King John demanding this, that and the other from them and giving them nothing back in return. So they banded together and demanded that John meet them on neutral ground. When they were all gathered together one of the barons said “Right John, we will agree to pay some of these taxes if you stop locking us up without trial. We don’t want to pay to go fishing on the Thames neither. Stick your name here and we can all go home”.
You are now thinking, hmmmm, it just might have been a little more complicated than that. Just think of a present-day world summit meeting with their thousands of negotiators and back-room support staff. They have computers and all sorts of whizz-kiddery and it takes months of preparation and days of talks to get anywhere. How did they do it all in 1215 in one afternoon when the height of technology was the quill pen?
It will be no great surprise to learn that the school version of Magna Carta is a massive over-simplification.
Firstly, King John did not sign Magna Carta at Runnymede. He placed his seal at the bottom of a draft form of the document called “Articles of the Barons”, and as this was properly witnessed under Common Law it became legally binding. The document was not signed (or sealed) by any of the barons. The full Magna Carta, (translation Great Paper) was not sealed until a month later after the Chancery had redrafted it into the final document.
Let’s take a more detailed look at the background.
Magna Carta Island
Magna Carta Island
By the end of the 12th century the Norman system of government had enabled the King of England to become the most powerful man in Western Europe. Power has a nasty habit of going to ones head and King John was no exception. I have already discovered during the course of my journey that John was not one of our better rulers, and he soon started to get things very, very wrong.
John was not the only choice for King when his older brother Richard died. There was also considerable support for Richard’s nephew, Arthur of Brittany. To secure the throne of England John needed the support of the King of France, Philip Augustus. In order to help Philip decide to support his claim to the crown, John gave the King of France a large portion of the lands he held in Anjou. Big mistake.
In every really big mess, there always has to be a woman involved somewhere. The woman in this case was Isabella of Angouleme who John had taken rather a shine to and decided to marry. Isabella’s jilted fiancée, Hugh IX of Lusignan, did not take this too well, and appealed to Philip to help him get his revenge on John. Philip immediately declared all the remainder of John’s French lands to be forfeit, invaded them with his army and gave them to Arthur of Brittany to rule over.
John had to act to save face, and despatched his armies across to France to grab his lands back. His French barons were not exactly supportive, for Arthur of Brittany had suddenly died in mysterious circumstances. You can guess who (probably correctly) was getting all the blame. John’s allies (what was left of them) were defeated at the Battle of Bouvines and the lands were finally conceded to France. The revenue from these lands had previously generated a significant part of the crown income, and put a severe hole in the budget. John decided to squeeze the Barons for more taxes to make up the shortfall, so tightening the pressures that would lead to the revolt.
There was no constitutional crisis in the medieval days that the involvement of the Church could not make considerably worse. It’s about time we looked at their contribution to this hiatus. The appointment of the Archbishop of Canterbury had always been a contentious issue, but took a new turn following the crowning of King John.
Until 1200 the Archbishop had been selected by the monarchy in consultation with the monks of Canterbury. Now the monks wanted more say, and elected one of their number to be the new Archbishop. John responded by sending John de Gray, Bishop of Norwich to Rome as his appointed Archbishop. The Pope, Innocent III, decided that he would have neither of them and persuaded the monks to elect Stephen Langton instead. Upon hearing this John completely threw his teddy out of the pram and ordered all of the Canterbury monks into exile. The Pope hit back, and ordered an interdict, whereby all acts of worship, mass, marriages and even the ringing of church bells were declared illegal in England from 1208. When John did not respond, Innocent upped the ante by excommunicating the King in 1209. After receiving no response from this action, the Pope started to encourage Philip of France to invade and conquer England. John eventually backed down, and agreed to have Bishop Langton as Archbishop and allowed the monks to return. To further placate the Pope, he also gave England and Ireland to become Papal Territories and rent them back. The Barons were not happy about this at all, seeing it as selling out to the Papal powers.
So now we have land, power, women and religion all in the melting pot. All we need to do now is add a few money problems and the whole lot will go bang. Which is exactly what happened?
The state income was devastated and tax revenues were required to finance the wars necessary to win back the lost lands. John used all the trickery and double-talk he could to raise the levels of taxation. He re-interpreted Forest Law, which applied to hunting rights in the Royal Forests. He increased by several fold the taxes in scutage, which was the payment of taxes instead of providing military service, and worst of all he introduced a form of income tax, that was as popular then as its descendant is today.
The Barons had suffered enough, and together they marched on London. Such was the unpopularity of John that the city threw its gates open in welcome to them. The combined forces of the Barons were enough for John to meet them at Runnymede and put his seal to “The Articles of the Barons” on June 15th 1215. Magna Carta. On June 19th the Barons responded by re-affirming their fealty to King John.
The Chancery then took the various clauses and made them into Magna Carta. Several copies were made and distributed to the Barons, Royal Sherrifs and Bishops.
The major cause of concern to John was clause number 61. This clause was the longest part of the document, and the part that everyone knows something about. It established a committee of 25 barons who could meet at any time and over-rule the King, even to the extent of confiscating his property.
All the way through the process John had been unable to take any situation without making it a whole lot worse, and as soon as the barons had left London he was at it again. He renounced the clause, and England was plunged into yet another civil war, the First Barons’ War.
John died in 1216 and his son Henry III succeeded to the throne. This is where William Marshall, who we discovered at Caversham a few days ago, comes into play. He, as we have learned, was Henry’s Regent, and he set about revising Magna Carta to keep the peace. On November 12th 1216 the revised Magna Carta, without clause 61 was issued, followed by a further revisions in 1217 and 1225, by which time it had been reduced to 37 clauses.
The version of Magna Carta so often quoted in English Law is the final version, which was issued by Edward I on October 12th 1297, just over eighty years after the original version. Every King for the next two hundred years included the charter of 1297 in their charters until Henry V put an end to the practice.
At the present day only three of the clauses of 1297 remain in their original form, clauses 1, 19 and 28. Clause 1 guarantees the freedom of the Church of England, Clause 9 covers the ancient liberties of the City of London and Clause 29 guarantees a right to due process by the law.
  • I. FIRST, We have granted to God, and by this our present Charter have confirmed, for Us and our Heirs for ever, that the Church of England shall be free, and shall have all her whole Rights and Liberties inviolable. We have granted also, and given to all the Freemen of our Realm, for Us and our Heirs for ever, these Liberties under-written, to have and to hold to them and their Heirs, of Us and our Heirs for ever.
  • IX. THE City of London shall have all the old Liberties and Customs which it hath been used to have. Moreover We will and grant, that all other Cities, Boroughs, Towns, and the Barons of the Five Ports, and all other Ports, shall have all their Liberties and free Customs.
  • XXIX. NO Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the Land. We will sell to no man; we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right.
Where on these meadows it was signed is anybody’s guess. There is a school of thought that says it was not at Runnymede at all, but on Magna Carta Island which is reached from the opposite bank. It would certainly have been a more strategic place for meeting a slippery rascal like King John. Being an island would have made it difficult for John to spring any nasty tricks and surprises such his troops suddenly appearing midway through the proceedings before the barons had a chance to defend themselves. During the time of Magna Carta the island was used by the nunnery of Ankerwyke and it could be that this was the place where John and the Barons met because both sides felt relatively safe on the confined island.
So that was Magna Carta, and a fine memorial exists in the National Trust grounds to commemorate it. The Runnymede Memorials are a short walk from the car park. It is with some surprise that I discover that the Magna Carta Memorial is not anywhere near as old as I had assumed it would be.
Magna Carta Memorial
Magna Carta Memorial
There are three memorials overlooking the Thames at Runnymede. The oldest is towards the top of the hill. It is administered by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and is dedicated to the memory of the men and women of the Allied Air Forces who died during the Second World War. This fine memorial was designed by Sir Edward Maufe and unveiled by the Queen on 17th October 1953. Over the entrance there is a dedication; “In this cloister are recorded the names of 20,456 airmen who have no known grave. They died for freedom in raid and sortie over the British Isles and the land and seas of northern and western Europe.”
The Magna Carta Memorial was built by the American Bar Association from donations from over 9,000 American lawyers. This memorial is in the shape of a domed classical temple containing a pillar which carries the inscription; “To commemorate Magna Carta, symbol of Freedom Under Law”. Sir Edward Maufe also designed this memorial. It was unveiled on 18th July 1957, a mere 742 years after the event it commemorates. There are visitor information plaques displaying the coats of arms of the twenty-five Barons and Bishop Langton accompanied by a brief description of Magna Carta for the benefit of visitors.
The third memorial stands on one acre of ground that is now the property of the United States of America. This memorial was designed by G.A.Jellicoe and unveiled by the Queen on 14th May 1965. It is dedicated to the memory of John F Kennedy who was assassinated on 22nd November 1963. The inscription reads “This acre of ground was given to the United States of America by the people of Britain in memory of John F Kennedy, born 19th May 1917: President of the United States 1961-63: died by an assassin’s hand 22nd November 1963. “Let every National know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend or oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty”: from the inaugural address of President Kennedy, January 1961.”

We then walked across the road and saw the above monument!!!



We then had lunch by the River Thames with interesting sights!!!


To finish a fascinating and history filled day we drove about 10 miles to Windsor Castle which is one of the Queen's weekend castles.....the flag was flying which means she was in residence!!!



So how about that for an afternoon!!!


Sorry cannot write more...have a game to watch!!

Happy Sunday to everyone!!!
Yashi Kochi!!!!


Saturday, June 25, 2016

Saturday 25th June 2016...at last a SLOW day!!!

Beautiful sunny morning!!!!!
After breakfast Anne took me to one of her favorite walks what do you think???


 We watched with interest the whole process of this house boat going through the lock!!!





They made it look easy!!
 As you can see I like taking reflective shots!!
The  ruins of the Abbey were taken from across the river.




It was a great walk and we were gone almost three hours.

Well I told you yesterday soccer is back from France and at 2.00 pm watched a live game followed at 5 pm by a great game involving Wales and Northern Island..a shame that one team had to loose and this time it was Northern Island....the games are now in the knock out stages so loose and you go home!!!

Then we went to one of Anne's friends for a BBQ to celebrate  Misty's  ..she is the dog!!!
 .had a really nice time great conversations and a lovely meal.... and back home where Anne has this recording device on her TV so I was able to watch the last of the three games today....

Told you it was a slow day!!!!

Yashi Kochi!!!

Friday, June 24, 2016

Friday 24th June 2016...Britain!!!

The general sense I get is that the vote was always going to be close but that the remain side would win...I think now no one really knows what the impact will be so uncertain times ahead...the following is a bit long!!

he UK's EU referendum: All you need to know

Flags in Smith SquareImage copyrightREUTERS
This article is designed to be an easy-to-understand guide now that the UK has voted to leave the European Union.

What has happened?

A referendum - a vote in which everyone (or nearly everyone) of voting age can take part - was held on Thursday 23 June, to decide whether the UK should leave or remain in the European Union.
Leave won by 52% to 48%.
The referendum turnout was 71.8%, with more than 30 million people voting. It was the highest turnout in a UK-wide vote since the 1992 general election.

Find the result in your area

What was the breakdown across the UK?

England voted strongly for Brexit, by 53.4% to 46.6%, as did Wales, with Leave getting 52.5% of the vote and Remain 47.5%.
Scotland and Northern Ireland both backed staying in the EU. Scotland backed Remain by 62% to 38%, while 55.8% in Northern Ireland voted Remain and 44.2% Leave.
Leave referendum areas

What is the European Union?

The European Union - often known as the EU - is an economic and political partnership involving 28 European countries (click here if you want to see the full list). It began after World War Two to foster economic co-operation, with the idea that countries which trade together are more likely to avoid going to war with each other.
It has since grown to become a "single market" allowing goods and people to move around, basically as if the member states were one country.
It has its own currency, the euro, which is used by 19 of the member countries, its own parliament and it now sets rules in a wide range of areas - including on the environment, transport, consumer rights and even things such as mobile phone charges. Click here for a beginners' guide to how the EU works.
Media captionHow does the European Union work?

What does Brexit mean?

It is a word that has become used as a shorthand way of saying the UK leaving the EU - merging the words Britain and exit to get Brexit, in a same way as a Greek exit from the EU was dubbed Grexit in the past.

What happens now?

For the UK to leave the EU it has to invoke an agreement called Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty.
Cameron or his successor needs to decide when to invoke this - that will then set in motion the formal legal process of withdrawing from the EU, and give the UK two years to negotiate its withdrawal.
The article has only been in force since late 2009 and it hasn't been tested yet, so no-one really knows how the Brexit process will work, according to BBC legal correspondent Clive Coleman.
Mr Cameron, who has said he would be stepping down as PM by October, said he will go to the European Council next week to "explain the decision the British people have taken".
EU law still stands in the UK until it ceases being a member - and that process could take some time.
The UK will continue to abide by EU treaties and laws, but not take part in any decision-making, as it negotiates a withdrawal agreement and the terms of its relationship with the now 27 nation bloc.

What happens to UK citizens working in the EU?

A lot depends on the kind of deal the UK agrees with the EU after exit.
If it remains within the single market, it would almost certainly retain free movement rights, allowing UK citizens to work in the EU and vice versa.
If the government opted to impose work permit restrictions, as UKIP wants, then other countries could reciprocate, meaning Britons would have to apply for visas to work.

Will I need a visa to travel to the EU?

While there could be limitations on British nationals' ability to live and work in EU countries, it seems unlikely they would want to deter tourists. There are many countries outside the EEA that British citizens can visit for up to 90 days without needing a visa and it is possible that such arrangements could be negotiated with European countries.

What about EU nationals who want to work in the UK?

Again, it depends on whether the UK government decides to introduce a work permit system of the kind that currently applies to non-EU citizens, limiting entry to skilled workers in professions where there are shortages.
Citizens' Advice has reminded people their rights have not changed yet and asked anyone to contact them if they think they have been discriminated against following the Leave vote.
A passport in front of a European Union flagImage copyrightREUTERS

Will I still be able to use my passport?

Yes. It is a British document - there is no such thing as an EU passport, so your passport will stay the same. In theory, the government could, if it wanted, decide to change the colour, which is currently standardised for EU countries, says the BBC's Europe correspondent, Chris Morris.

Some say we could still remain in the single market - but what is a single market?

The single market is seen by its advocates as the EU's biggest achievement and one of the main reasons it was set up in the first place.
Britain was a member of a free trade area in Europe before it joined what was then known as the common market. In a free trade area countries can trade with each other without paying tariffs - but it is not a single market because the member states do not have to merge their economies together.
The European Union single market, which was completed in 1992, allows the free movement of goods, services, money and people within the European Union, as if it was a single country.
It is possible to set up a business or take a job anywhere within it. The idea was to boost trade, create jobs and lower prices. But it requires common law-making to ensure products are made to the same technical standards and imposes other rules to ensure a "level playing field".
Critics say it generates too many petty regulations and robs members of control over their own affairs. Mass migration from poorer to richer countries has also raised questions about the free movement rule. Read more: A free trade area v EU single market

Has any other member state ever left the EU?

No nation state has ever left the EU. But Greenland, one of Denmark's overseas territories, held a referendum in 1982, after gaining a greater degree of self government, and voted by 52% to 48% to leave, which it duly did after a period of negotiation. The BBC's Carolyn Quinn visited Greenland at the end of last year to find out how they did it.
Nicola Sturgeon speaking in Edinburgh on 24 June 2016Image copyrightREUTERS
Image captionNicola Sturgeon says a new independence referendum in Scotland is likely

What does this mean for Scotland?

Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said in the wake of the Leave result that it is "democratically unacceptable" that Scotland faces being taken out of the EU when it voted to Remain.

What does it mean for Northern Ireland?

Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness said the impact in Northern Ireland would be "very profound" and that the whole island of Ireland should now be able to vote on reunification.
But Northern Ireland Secretary Theresa Villiers has ruled out the call from Sinn Féin for a border poll, saying the circumstances in which one would be called did not exist.

What will happen to the Conservative leadership?

David Cameron has said a new prime minister should be in place by the beginning of the Conservative party conference on 2 October.
Nominations for a replacement leader will come from Conservative members of the House of Commons.
If one nomination is received, the new leader is declared elected. If two nominations are made, both names go forward for the members of the party across the UK to vote on by post.
In the event that three or more MPs are nominated for leader, a ballot of Conservative MPs is held "on the Tuesday immediately following the closing date for nominations".

How will pensions, savings, investments and mortgages be affected?

During the referendum campaign, the prime minister said the so-called "triple lock" for state pensions would be threatened by a UK exit. This is the agreement by which pensions increase by at least the level of earnings, inflation or 2.5% every year - whichever is the highest.
If economic performance deteriorates, the Bank of England could decide on a further programme of quantitative easing, as an alternative to cutting interest rates, which would lower bond yields and with them annuity rates. So anyone taking out a pension annuity could get less income for their money.
The Bank of England may consider raising interest rates to combat extra pressure on inflation. That would make mortgages and loans more expensive to repay but would be good news for savers.
The Treasury previously forecast a rise of between 0.7% and 1.1% in mortgage borrowing costs, with the prime minister claiming the average cost of a mortgage could increase by up to £1,000 a year.
The Treasury argued during the referendum campaign that UK shares would become less attractive to foreign investors in the event of Brexit and would therefore decline in value, but in the longer term shares typically rise with company profits. Big exporters might benefit from the weaker pound, so the value of their shares might well rise, while importers might see profits squeezed.
A duty free shopImage copyrightTHINKSTOCK

Will duty-free sales on Europe journeys return?

Journalists and writers on social media have greeted the reintroduction of duty-free sales as an "upside" or "silver lining" of Brexit.
As with most Brexit consequences, whether this will happen depends on how negotiations with the EU play out - whether the "customs union" agreement between Britain and the EU is ended or continued.
Eurotunnel boss Jacques Gounon said last November the reintroduction of duty-free would be "an incredible boost for my business" but he later said that remark had been "light-hearted".
Erik Juul-Mortensen, president of the Tax Free World Association (TFWA) said after the referendum vote "it is not possible to predict how Brexit will affect the duty free and travel retail industry, and it is wiser not to make assumptions about exactly what the impact will be."

Will our EHIC cards still be valid?

No-one knows for definite. The EHIC card - which entitles travellers to state-provided medical help for any condition or injury that requires urgent treatment, in any other country within the EU, as well as several non-EU countries - is not an EU initiative. It was negotiated between countries within a group known as the European Economic Area, often simply referred to as the single market (plus Switzerland, which confusingly is not a member of the EEA, but has agreed access to the single market). Therefore, the future of Britons' EHIC cover could depend on whether the UK decided to sever ties with the EEA.

Will cars need new number plates?

Probably not, says BBC Europe correspondent Chris Morris, because there's no EU-wide law on vehicle registration or car number places, and the EU flag symbol is a voluntary identifier and not compulsory. The DVLA says there has been no discussion about what would happen to plates with the flag if the UK voted to leave.

Could MPs block an EU exit?

Could the necessary legislation pass the Commons, given that a lot of MPs - all SNP and Lib Dems, nearly all Labour and many Conservatives - were in favour of staying?
The referendum result is not legally binding - Parliament still has to pass the laws that will get Britain out of the 28 nation bloc, starting with the repeal of the 1972 European Communities Act.
The withdrawal agreement also has to be ratified by Parliament - the House of Lords and/or the Commons could vote against ratification, according to a House of Commons library report.
In practice, Conservative MPs who voted to remain in the EU would be whipped to vote with the government. Any who defied the whip would have to face the wrath of voters at the next general election.
One scenario that could see the referendum result overturned, is if MPs forced a general election and a party campaigned on a promise to keep Britain in the EU, got elected and then claimed that the election mandate topped the referendum one.
Two-thirds of MPs would have to vote for a general election to be held before the next scheduled one in 2020.

Will leaving the EU mean we don't have to abide by the European Court of Human Rights?

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is not a European Union institution.
It was set up by the Council of Europe, which has 47 members including Russia and Ukraine. So quitting the EU will not exempt the UK from its decisions.
However, the UK government is committed to repealing the Human Rights Act which requires UK courts to treat the ECHR as setting legal precedents for the UK, in favour of a British Bill of Rights.
As part of that, David Cameron is expected to announce measures that will boost the powers of courts in England and Wales to over-rule judgements handed down by the ECHR.
However, the EU has its own European Court of Justice, whose decisions are binding on EU institutions and member states.
Its rulings have sometimes caused controversy in Britain and supporters of a Brexit have called for immediate legislation to curb its powers.

Will the UK be able to rejoin the EU in the future?

BBC Europe editor Katya Adler says the UK would have to start from scratch with no rebate, and enter accession talks with the EU.
Every member state would have to agree to the UK re-joining. But she says with elections looming elsewhere in Europe, other leaders might not be generous towards any UK demands.
New members are required to adopt the euro as their currency, once they meet the relevant criteria, although the UK could try to negotiate an opt-out.

Who wanted the UK to leave the EU?

The UK Independence Party, which won the last European elections, and received nearly four million votes - 13% of those cast - in May's general election, campaigned for Britain's exit from the EU.
About half of Conservative MPs, including five cabinet ministers, several Labour MPs and the DUP were also in favour of leaving.

What were their reasons for wanting the UK to leave?

They said Britain was being held back by the EU, which they said imposed too many rules on business and charged billions of pounds a year in membership fees for little in return. They also wanted Britain to take back full control of its borders and reduce the number of people coming here to live and/or work.
One of the main principles of EU membership is "free movement", which means you don't need to get a visa to go and live in another EU country. The Leave campaign also objected to the idea of "ever closer union" and what they see as moves towards the creation of a "United States of Europe".

Who wanted the UK to stay in the EU?

Prime Minister David Cameron wanted Britain to stay in the EU. He sought an agreement with other European Union leaders to change the terms of Britain's membership.
David Cameron outside 10 Downing StreetImage copyrightAFP/GETTY
He said the deal would give Britain "special" status and help sort out some of the things British people said they didn't like about the EU, like high levels of immigration - but critics said the deal would make little difference.
Sixteen members of the PM's cabinet also backed staying in. The Conservative Party pledged to be neutral in the campaign - but the Labour Party, SNP, Plaid Cymru and the Lib Dems were all in favour of staying in.
US president Barack Obama also wanted Britain to remain in the EU, as did other EU nations such as France and Germany.

What were their reasons for wanting the UK to stay?

Those campaigning for Britain to stay in the EU said it gets a big boost from membership - it makes selling things to other EU countries easier and, they argued, the flow of immigrants, most of whom are young and keen to work, fuels economic growth and helps pay for public services.
They also said Britain's status in the world would be damaged by leaving and that we are more secure as part of the 28 nation club, rather than going it alone.

What about businesses?

Big business - with a few exceptions - tended to be in favour of Britain staying in the EU because it makes it easier for them to move money, people and products around the world.
BT chairman Sir Mike Rake, a recent CBI president, said there were "no credible alternatives" to staying in the EU. But others disagreed, such as Lord Bamford, chairman of JCB, who said an EU exit would allow the UK to negotiate trade deals as our country "rather than being one of 28 nations".
Morgan Stanley sources told BBC business reporter Joe Lynam that it had started the process of moving about 2,000 staff based in London to either Dublin or Frankfurt. Ahead of the vote, the president of the investment bank, Colm Kelleher, told Bloomsberg that Brexit would be "the most consequential thing that we've ever seen since the war".
Boris Johnson speaking after the UK voted to leave the EUImage copyrightREUTERS
Image captionBoris Johnson was one of the most prominent Leave campaigners

Who led the rival sides in the campaign?

  • Britain Stronger in Europe - the main cross-party group campaigning for Britain to remain in the EU was headed by former Marks and Spencer chairman Lord Rose. It was backed by key figures from the Conservative Party, including Prime Minister David Cameron and Chancellor George Osborne, most Labour MPs, including party leader Jeremy Corbyn and Alan Johnson, who ran the Labour In for Britain campaign, the Lib Dems, Plaid Cymru, the Alliance party and the SDLP in Northern Ireland, and the Green Party. Who funded the campaign: Britain Stronger in Europe raised £6.88m, boosted by two donations totalling £2.3m from the supermarket magnate and Labour peer Lord Sainsbury. Other prominent Remain donors included hedge fund manager David Harding (£750,000), businessman and Travelex founder Lloyd Dorfman (£500,000) and the Tower Limited Partnership (£500,000). Read a Who's Who guide. Who else campaigned to remain: The SNP ran its own remain campaign in Scotland as it did not want to share a platform with the Conservatives. Several smaller groups also registered to campaign.
  • Vote Leave - A cross-party campaign that has the backing of senior Conservatives such as Michael Gove and Boris Johnson plus a handful of Labour MPs, including Gisela Stuart and Graham Stringer, and UKIP's Douglas Carswell and Suzanne Evans, and the DUP in Northern Ireland. Former Tory chancellor Lord Lawson and SDP founder Lord Owen were also involved. It had a string of affiliated groups such as Farmers for Britain, Muslims for Britain and Out and Proud, a gay anti-EU group, aimed at building support in different communities. Who funded the campaign: Vote Leave raised £2.78m. Its largest supporter was businessman Patrick Barbour, who gave £500,000. Former Conservative Party treasurer Peter Cruddas gave a £350,000 donation and construction mogul Terence Adams handed over £300,000. Read a Who's Who guideWho else campaigned to leave: UKIP leader Nigel Farage is not part of Vote Leave. His party ran its own campaign. The Trade Union and Socialist Coalition is also running its own out campaign. Several smaller groups also registered to campaign.

Will the EU still use English?

Yes, says BBC Europe editor Katya Adler. There will still be 27 other EU states in the bloc, and others wanting to join in the future, and the common language tends to be English - "much to France's chagrin", she says.

Will a Brexit harm product safety?

Probably not, is the answer. It would depend on whether or not the UK decided to get rid of current safety standards. Even if that happened any company wanting to export to the EU would have to comply with its safety rules, and it's hard to imagine a company would want to produce two batches of the same products.


After my hosts made me a lovely breakfast i was on the road by 8.30 am and it was raining and misty....Ian had told me where to drive to see wild Ponies on Dartmoor and that was where I headed...
 As you can tell not the best weather for animal sightings..
I drove down the road for about 5 miles but then stopped and turned around as I had to come back the same way...the mist seemed to clear and I did see lots of sheep and i stopped and took this photo
I did intend to try to convince some of my gullible readers that this in fact was a very rare breed of wild pony!!!!
BUT...I do not have to because round the bend were these beauties......



So mission accomplished...back on the road a few more miles to my next stop...


I took the circular hike through the almost south American like rain forest with lovely views...




I enjoyed the hike especially as I had a couple of hours driving ahead of me to my next place, Stonehenge.......I have never been here and as i approached the traffic lines to get in the parking lot were horrendous...no way was i going to fight that so I kept on going what i did not know was that the road goes right by so I managed these out of the car window as i was driving(I never said that Linda and Heather!!!!)


I arrived back at Anne's house around 4.30 pm and it was a good long driving day...
Anne made a lovely dinner and for the second night in a row no soccer...we sat and just caught up....I am staying the weekend here and yes soccer starts up again tomorrow!!!
Yashi Kochi!!